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In India, the population Census is a Union subject (Article 246) and is listed at serial number 69 of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution. The Census Act, 1948 forms the legal basis for conduct of Censuses in independent India. Although the Census Act is an instrument of Central legislation, in the scheme of its execution the state governments provide the administrative support for the actual conduct of the Census. A Census hierarchy is set up at all levels by the state specifically for the purposes of carrying out the census. The Census Organization under the Union Home Ministry has been functioning on a permanent footing ever since 1961 and provides a vital continuity to conceive, plan and implement the programme of census taking in the country. The organization headed by the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India has field offices in thirty States and Union territories. These are permanent Directorates headed by the Directors of Census Operations, who are mainly responsible for the conduct of Census in their respective jurisdiction.

Census Year Name of Director
1961 Shri R. K. Trivedi
1971 Shri C. C. Doctor
1981 Shri R. S. Chhaya
1991 Shri N. R. Varsani
2001 Shri Jayant Parimal
2011 Shri Manish Bharadwaj